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Per Fillium: A Biblical Alternative to the Filioque Clause and a Via Media between Rome and Constantinople: Part 1 of 6

Tony Arsenal picture for per fillum

(Originally Presented at the 2014 Meeting of the Northeast Region of the Evangelical Society)


Opening Remarks and Thesis

The goal of this paper is threefold. First, I will provide an overview of the historical development of the Filioque Clause and the ensuing controversy for the purpose of rooting today’s discussion within the historical context of the theological development rather than the modern state of the controversy. Second, I will demonstrate that there are significant theological problems that are a logical consequence of the use of the Filioque Clause, as well as the strict denial that is present in much of historic Eastern Orthodoxy. Finally, I will present an alternate proposal that is supported by exegetical analysis, systematic rigor, and historical precedent. After I have established these points I will provide some brief reflection on the benefits in application that my proposal may bring about.

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Review: Jesus on Trial by David Limbaugh

150107-Jesus-on-trialDan Barkman | With endorsements from apologists like Frank Turek and Ravi Zacharias, I had high hopes for David Limbaugh’s Jesus on Trial and the book did not disappoint.  Limbaugh-a New York Times best-selling author-revealed that he has long been fascinated by intellectual defenses of the Christian faith but finally decided to put his thoughts to writing after being challenged about his religious commitments from a longtime friend over dinner.  This conversation was soon followed by a request from his publisher to switch gears in his next book from politics to theology.  Limbaugh soon acquiesced to his publisher’s request and what followed was a book broad in scope while at the same time not lacking in substance.

Limbaugh’s approach was a refreshing change from the theological apriorism present in many apologetic works.  Much like legal experts Gilbert West and Lord Lyttelton (both of whose conversions are discussed), Limbaugh’s method is probably best described as a form of juridical apologetics as he applies his training in law and the evaluation of evidence to the central tenants of the Christian religion.  In doing so he has joined a long list of lawyers from Hugo Grotius to Sir Robert Anderson who have produced strong defenses of Christian theism. [Read more…]

On the Importance of Studying Greek

SONY DSCBy Dax R. Bennington


The reasons for studying Greek are numerous. This essay will address a number of the benefits of studying the ancient language. Some of the benefits are intrinsically valuable, that is they are good in and of themselves, not sought out for any particular means, and some of the benefits for studying New Testament Greek (Koine) are meant for more pragmatic purposes, or they are sought out for a means to an end. Some of the benefits of studying New Testament Greek are philosophical, theological, grammatical and linguistic, the general discipline of study, as well as for apologetics. A brief discussion on the benefits of each topic will be addressed respectively.
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EQUIPPED Vol. 1 No. 2: The Word Became Flesh and Dwelt Among Us

Cover EQUIPPED 1.2EQUIPPED – A CAA Quarterly

Vol. 1 No. 2: EQUIPPED 1.2

If you’re looking for a good conversation starter, try asking, “Who is the most important person in history?” and follow it up with, “Why do you say that?” After reading this issue, you will be EQUIPPED to discuss these questions and answer the most important question: “Who do you say I am?”

The Word Became Flesh and Dwelt Among Us

—Glen Richmond, Editor EQUIPPED

Why Do We Believe The Gospel?

smallBy Jon Bolie


When it comes to the matter of faith, there is only one legitimate definition; knowing that something is true and trusting in that fact. You cannot have faith that is ‘blind’. Now, you may not understand everything about God (we don’t… we have limited [finite] minds, while God’s is infinite), but we can know something.

The Reason

The reason the gospels were written was to give us an actual account of an event (actually, events) that really happened in the context of history and reality, concerning Jesus Christ. The very fact that they wrote the gospels shows that we are to use our minds in believing the gospel. All that we hear, see, read, etc… goes into our minds and our minds make a decision for Christ.

Sure, affections and the heart are involved, in fact, necessarily involved (for we cannot be neutral on any subject that we’ve heard, seen or experienced) but neither mind alone, nor heart alone, are sufficient. Besides the role of the Holy Spirit in regeneration before we can come to Christ, the information of the gospel must be grasped and consented to by our brains. In fact, ‘heart knowledge’ is a category mistake (logical fallacy); it is best described as a heart change, which is a change in our affections toward Christ, God, the Gospel, etc…

But, in squawking about ‘head knowledge’ and ‘heart knowledge’, people forget that God created both our faculty of thought and reason, and of feelings, affections and emotions. Minimizing either of these belittles God and His design for us as humans. These two faculties are not diametrically opposed, for, if we minimize one and focus on the other, we get woefully out of balance. We must use each as they are intended by God, for He created them for a purpose. Do not call what God created evil, or sub-Gospel. They are both used in the Christian life and therefore in the apprehending of the Gospel and God’s Word (the Bible).

Biblically, there are foundations for what we sometimes (mistakenly, and derogatorily) refer to as ‘heady’ knowledge [i.e. “that’s too ‘heady’ of a thought….that’s for academics in an ivory tower.”, etc…]. [Read more…]